English Grammar in Useで英文法を学ぶ


Unit 7 (I have done) Present Perfect 現在完了形



 A Study examples

Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. He has lost his key.

He has lost his key. というとき、彼は最近鍵を失くした現在もまだそれを失った状態であるということ。

個人的には、失くした、その状態を今も継続している。つまり、losthas(have) しているということ。と解釈すればわかりやすいんじゃないかなと思います。

現在完了形は、have/has + past participle 



B 現在完了形は、過去に起こった行為が、現在も結果として残っています。

'Is Sally here?' 'No, she's gone out.'


'I can't find may bag. Have you seen it?'


この場合、Did you see it? だと、見たかどうかしか聞いてなくて、今カバンがどこにあるかまで、聞くつもりがない感じなのかな。


C gone(to) と been(to) の使い分け

James is on holiday. He has gone to Italy.


Jane is back home now. She has been to Italy.



D 現在完了形と相性の良い副詞 just, already and yet

Just = a short time ago (ついさっき、ちょっと前)

'Are you hungry?' 'No, I've just had lunch 

already = to say that something happened sooner than expected(思ってたよりはやく起こった時に)

'Don't forget to pay your electricity bill' 'I've already paid it'

Yet = until now (疑問文と否定文でのみ、使います)

'Has it stopped raining yet?' (もう雨やんだ?)

'I've written the email. but I have not sent it yet.' (まだメールを出していない)



My best friend is a halkist though. I haven't read Haruki Murakami's novels yet. But he eagerly advised me to read them, so I am thinking of trying to read them. So I ordered his early ones in an online shop. So I am really looking forward to it. By the way, those are the early trilogy. Kaze no uta wo kike, 1973nen no pinball and Hitsuji wo meguru bouken.


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